Workshop Penulisan Penelitian Tindakan Kelas bagi Guru di DIY

Australia Awards Scholarships – Alumni Reference Group (ARG) Team Pendidikan akan menyelenggarakan Workshop Penulisan Penelitian Tindakan Kelas bagi guru SD, SMP, SMA atau yang sederajat di wilayah Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta.

Bagi yang berstatus sebagai guru di wilayah DIY dan berminat silakan mengirimkan proposal penelitian tindakan kelas dan curriculum vitae (CV) ke panitia. Format proposal penelitian tindakan kelas dapat diperoleh dengan cara mengirimkan email permintaan ke dedygunawan@lpmpjateng.go.id. Informasi detail silakan lihat flyer (gambar).

Silakan informasi ini disebarkan kepada saudara atau teman yang kebetulan berprofesi sebagai guru di DIY.

Tentang Alumni Reference Group, klik: http://australiaawardsindo.or.id/index.php/en/about-arg

 

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November 17, 2013 · 3:13 am

The Power of Playing

“Play is the highest expression of human development, for it alone is the free expression of what is in a child’s soul” Friedrich Froebel – The inventor of kindergarten (LeBlanc, 2006)

Young children learn differently from adults. Adults learn through memorizing, reading, and writing. Children learn so naturally – through playing (Sarama & Clements, 2006). Some researches (LeBlanc, 2006; Schroeder, 2007; Stegelin, 2005) agree that play is the best way for children to learn. Without enough time to play, children will get stress (Schroeder, 2007). Schipani (2007) argues that ‘child’s brain receives important nutrients when he is active, and when kids are involved in free play, they have the opportunity to develop valuable social skills’. Through the context of play, young children can develop their literacy (Einarsdottir, 1996) and play is very important because it contributes to the cognitive, physical, social and emotional well-being of children and youth (Ginsburg, 2007). Stegelin (2005) summarises that active play contributes into positive outcomes such as reducing levels of obesity, heart-related problems and chronic stress, optimizing cognitive development, enhancing language and early literacy development, and developing their social competence.

Though children could memorise academic concept really strongly, separating children from play will lead into other problems. Moreover, there is not any significant correlation between children development and formal instruction (Schroeder, 2007). Jacobson (2005), reporting a research done by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development’s Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, concludes that advantages children acquire by being involved with academic activities such as mathematics, vocabulary, and memory skills in childcare and kindergarten appear to remain at least through 3rd grade before they, then, suffers from other social problems. The problems varied from mother-child conflicts, bad behaviour at school, aggressive, disobedient to even poor work habits at school.

History has told us that genius people did not start their smartness since they were young. Some of them, even, were blamed to be idiot in their early age. ‘Albert Einstein, probably the most well-known scientist in 20th century, did not talk until the age of three but even as a youth he showed a brilliant curiosity about nature and an ability to understand difficult mathematical concepts’ (Encarta, 2007).

This might be an indicator that children start learning something when they are ready to do so. Parents, teachers and other adults do not have any privilege to force them learning in a particular way. What they need to do is facilitating children to learn based on their development stages. Their smartness in early age does not guarantee they will become an expert when they grow. Vice versa, although young children could not read or do mathematics questions, it does not mean they will face worse future.

Dedy Gunawan, M.Ed candidate of Flinders University of South Australia

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Presentasi di Australia: Who Knows?

Oleh Dedy Gunawan

Memang nasib orang tidak bisa ditebak. Siapa sangka tanggal 22 November 2007 menjadi sebuah hari yang bersejarah, karena untuk pertama kalinya aku ikut konferensi penelitian pendidikan (Educational Research Conference 2007) di Australia. Kenapa begitu istimewa? Karena aku menjadi salah satu presenter di konferensi yang bertajuk “Envisaging Educational Futures” itu. Konferensi itu dilaksaakan di kampus Flinders University, Adelaide.

Adalah Paul Jewell, dosen senior Ethics in Education Flinders University, yang “menodong”ku mempresentasikan hasil kajian pustakaku yang berjudul “Solving the Indonesian National Examination Problem: Ethical Strategies”. Pada mulanya aku ragu untuk mempresentasikannya, karena dalam batin bergulat sebuah dilema: Apakah kalau aku mempresentasikannya, aku tidak dalam posisi ‘menelanjangi’ pendidikan di Indonesia di depan peserta-peserta yang berasal dari berbagai negara itu? Karena salah satu hal yang aku presentasikan adalah “nyontek bersama” antara siswa, guru dan kepala sekolah, yang didukung oleh kepala dinas pendidikan di beberapa sekolah di beberapa daerah di Indonesia pada UN 2007. Sedangkan di negara-negara maju, sekedar salah kutip ketika menulis essay saja sudah dianggap plagiarisme. Bagaimana nanti mereka mau melihat bangsa kita?

Akhirnya aku menjadi pedhe setelah melihat-lihat bahwa banyak koran online baik berbahasa Indonesia maupun Bahasa Inggris yang sudah terlebih dahulu membeberkan hal yang sama, utamanya hasil investigasi tim depdiknas tentang 37 kecurangan dalam UN, pengakuan Komunitas Air Mata Guru, dan pengakuan siwa-siswa SMP dan SMA yang dilansir oleh media-media itu. Artinya, berita tentang organised cheating di Indonesia sudah tersebar ke mana-mana dan bukan lagi“rahasia negara”. Terlebih, yang aku tawarkan adalah sebuah jalan pemecahan.

Hal kedua yang terjadi adalah… grogi. Rasanya baru pernah aku merasa senervous ini. Bagaimana tidak, presentasi dalam Bahasa Indonesia saja blekathak blekuthuk, bagaimana kalau dengan Bahasa Inggris? Dua hari menjelang presentasi sempat terpikir untuk mundur saja. Namun dengan berbagai “pertimbangan waras”, dan persiapan yang dicukup-cukupkan – karena berbarengan dengan pengerjaan tugas-tugas kuliah, akhirnya maju adalah pilihan tepat. Satu menit setelah presentasi, aku merasa telah menjadi pemenang dalam sebuah pertandingan gulat kelas super berat melawan ketakutan.

Hal paling mengesankan dalam presentasi itu adalah bagaimana para peserta menghormati sebuah keterbatasan. Mereka, dengan Bahasa Inggrisku yang ndrengkeyeng, mau begitu tekun mendengarkan penjelasan yang aku sampaikan. Rasanya, selama presentasi, baik presentasiku maupun presentasi peserta-peserta yang lain, tidak terlihat adanya ‘pembantaian’, satu hal yang lazim terjadi di forum-forum diskusi di negeriku. Ini menjadi sebuah pelajaran penting bagiku.

‘Iintegrity is more important than honesty’ kata Adi Suryani, dosen ITS Surabaya yang juga melakukan presentasi di forum yang sama. Ada kalanya, demi orang lain, demi perdamaian dan kemanusiaan, kita harus menyembunyikan sebuah kejujuran.
Kini, buah dari presentasi itu, aku semakin paham tentang satu hal: dunia akademis membutuhkan kesabaran, kebijaksanaan dalam berfikir, dan kedewasaan dalam berargumentasi.

Satu beban terlewati, di luar sana Summer membakar rumput dan pepohonan.

______________________________________________________________________________________
Untuk melihat abstrak dan jadwal konferensi, klik Educational Research Conference 2007 Booklet

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Ingat Wiji Tukul

Wiji Tukul. Sebuah sosok yang tiba-tiba menjadi populer karena menjadi target operasi pencarian orang berbahaya orde baru setelah Budiman Sudjatmiko dan Pius Lustrilanang. Puisi Tukul yang berbunyi “Hanya Ada Satu Kata: Lawan!” adalah petikan yang menjadi inspirasi teman-teman mahasiswa untuk meninggalkan bangku kuliah dan menghabiskan waktunya di jalanan (baca: demonstrasi). Puisinya lugas dan bebas dari ‘kungkungan’ teori berpuisi. Selugas bahasanya, puisi tukul berisi protes terhadap ketidak adilan kekuasaan. Namun kini kita tidak akan menemui karya-karya seunik itu lagi, karena penyairnya telah hilang dan tak kembali lagi

Tiba-tiba ‘kerinduan’ pada si Tukul ini muncul. Aku tidak tahu banyak tentang dia. Yang aku tahu, Tukul telah hilang ditelan oleh sebuah kekuasaan yang arogan dan yang paling aku tahu hanyalah petikan puisinya yang berbunyi “Lawan!”. Hasil pencarian melalui google, ada beberapa puisi Wiji Tukul yang bisa dipost di sini.

_________________________________

Peringatan

Jika rakyat pergi
Ketika penguasa pidato
Kita harus hati-hati
Barangkali mereka putus asa

Kalau rakyat bersembunyi
Dan berbisik-bisik
Ketika membicarakan masalahnya sendiri
Penguasa harus waspada dan belajar mendengar

Bila rakyat berani mengeluh
Itu artinya sudah gawat
Dan bila omongan penguasa
Tidak boleh dibantah
Kebenaran pasti terancam

Apabila usul ditolak tanpa ditimbang
Suara dibungkam kritik dilarang tanpa alasan
Dituduh subversif dan mengganggu keamanan
Maka hanya ada satu kata: lawan!

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Sampai di Luar Batas

Kau lempar aku dalam gelap
Hingga hidupku menjadi gelap
Kau siksa aku sangat keras
Hingga aku makin mengeras
Kau paksa aku terus menunduk
Tapi keputusan tambah tegak
Darah sudah kau teteskan
Dari bibirku
Luka sudah kau bilurkan
Ke sekujur tubuhku
Cahaya sudah kau rampas
Dari biji mataku
Derita sudah naik seleher
Kau menindas
Sampai
Di luar batas

Wiji Thukul,17 November 1996

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Bunga dan Tembok

Seumpama bunga
Kami adalah bunga yang tak
Kau hendaki tumbuh
Engkau lebih suka membangun
Rumah dan merampas tanah

Seumpama bunga
Kami adalah bunga yang tak
Kau kehendakiadanya
Engkau lebih suka membangun
Jalan raya dan pagar besi

Seumpama bunga
Kami adalah bunga yang
Dirontokkan di bumi kami sendiri

Jika kami bunga
Engkau adalah tembok itu
Tapi di tubuh tembok itu
Telah kami sebar biji-biji
Suatu saat kami akan tumbuh bersama
Dengan keyakinan: engkau harus hancur!
Dalam keyakinan kami
Di manapun – tirani harus tumbang!

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Aku Masih Utuh dan Kata-kata Belum Binasa

aku bukan artis pembuat berita
tapi aku memang selalu kabar buruk buat
penguasa

puisiku bukan puisi
tapi kata-kata gelap
yang berkeringat dan berdesakan
mencari jalan
ia tak mati-mati
meski bola mataku diganti
ia tak mati-mati
meski bercerai dengan rumah
ditusuk-tusuk sepi
ia tak mati-mati
telah kubayar yang dia minta
umur-tenaga-luka

kata-kata itu selalu menagih
padaku ia selalu berkata
kau masih hidup

aku memang masih utuh
dan kata-kata belum binasa

(Wiji Thukul.18 juni 1997)

Jadi…
Suara-suara itu tak bisa dipenjarakan
di sana bersemayam kemerdekaan
apabila engkau memaksa diam
aku siapkan untukmu: pemberontakan!

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Acceleration Class Program in Indonesia: Is It in the Right Track?

Dedy Gunawan

There have been higher concerns about providing adequate learning circumstances for gifted students in Indonesia. The Department of National Education has provided a legal regulation allowing schools to provide acceleration opportunities for gifted students. In section 5, article 4 of National Education System Act of 2003 it is stated that any citizen who has special talent and intelligence should get special education. Section 12, article 1 states that every learner in any grade level has the right to … (b) obtain educational services based upon their interest, talent, and ability; … (f) finish their grade based on how fast they could learn. The time they need to finish their study should not incompatible with the regulation (Depdiknas, 2003 p. 160). Quite surprisingly, in response to that regulation, many schools compete each others to open acceleration class. Acceleration class program is now becoming a trend in Indonesian primary and secondary schools (Kamdi, 2004).
In the area of gifted education, acceleration is a fashionable term. Toth (1999) identifies acceleration into the following definitions: ‘early admission, grade skipping, advancing to a higher grade of a specific subject area, early graduation, or concurrent enrolment in college’. Some other options of acceleration are continuous progress, content acceleration, testing out of course requirements, advanced course in school breaks or after hours, correspondence courses, advanced placement courses, dual enrolment, specially designed credit courses, and radical acceleration (Columbia, 1995). A lot of schools around the world choose and consider acceleration program as an appropriate way to fulfil the gifted children needs (Belcastro, 1998; Lambert, 2005; Toth, 1999). A survey in Iowa Public School districts in 1997 shows that 63.7 per cent public schools implement (moderate and radical) acceleration program for gifted students (Belcastro, 1998).
This essay would like to limit the meaning of acceleration class and ability grouping of Indonesian schools. When compared to Toth’s definition of acceleration, the acceleration program in Indonesian schools is not simply facilitating gifted children to accelerate. It is actually the combination between acceleration and ability grouping. Toth (1999) himself views acceleration and ability grouping as different strategies for meeting gifted children’s needs.
Kamdi (2004) states that acceleration program in Indonesia is only the different form of “excellent class program”(direct translation of program kelas unggulan, which is almost similar to ability grouping), which was introduced by the government previously in 1994, with an additional advantage: an opportunity to speed up. That is why the program is called “acceleration class program”, not acceleration program.
Acceleration class program in Indonesian schools, according to Akbar and Hawadi (2002), is generally in the form of grade skipping, where children could complete their study less than the normal time, which then leads into an early graduation and admission to higher educational level. Even though the regulation enables students to accelerate individually and in a particular subject, there is no evidence that schools give opportunity to students to speed up individually or in a certain subject (Akbar & Hawadi, 2002; Sawali, 2002).
The regulation requires schools to use multiple ways in selecting the gifted children. The methods of determining the students’ giftedness, based on the information book published by the Department of National Education, could be in the following ways: a) Academic records, students who have outstanding academic records might enter the acceleration class b) Students who get IQ test score of 140 or more, and c) Subjective information: self nomination, peers nomination, teachers nomination, parents nomination d) Not in sick condition because of an acute disease e) Approval from the parents and the students themselves (Depdiknas, 2006). However, most of Indonesian schools only use IQ test in grouping the students. The groups is, consequently, not subject but generic based grouping, where any children who are considered to have high intelligence is grouped in a class without regarding in what area they are strong (Kamdi, 2004; Sawali, 2002).
The question appearing from this condition is: Should schools in Indonesia separate gifted and not-gifted children with acceleration class programs? The proposition of this essay is that schools in Indonesia need to separate gifted and not gifted into regular and acceleration classes because gifted and not-gifted children have different needs. This essay is going to examine the proposition by involving community of inquiry that presents arguments for and against it, considering the evidences, and moral reasoning consisting of principles, agreements, virtuous and end consequences considerations within psychology, curriculum, and economic paradigms.

Psychology Paradigm
Different arguments involving approval and objection of acceleration class program under psychological paradigm are contested. Besides presenting evidence(s), moral implications involving principles, agreements, virtuous, and end consequences consideration are also used.
Gifted and not gifted children have different needs, talents, and academic capacity that, if it is not managed properly, will lead into psychological problems (Moore, 2005; NAGC, 2005). Moore (2005) in reporting Kingore’s (2001) and Richert’s (1997) study notes some behavioural problems of gifted children as the consequence of placing them at the same class with average students, such as ‘boredom with level-grade curriculum, inappropriate behavioural outburst or reactions, sloppy work, demanding of their parents’ and teacher’s attention, demanding of other students, inconsiderate of others needs/wants, and difficulty transitioning from one subject to the next during the school day’. National Association of Gifted Children of United State of America also declares that gifted children may suffer boredom from repetitious learning in heterogenous class (NAGC, 2005). Lambert (2005), furthermore, argues that gifted students may experience frustration, completely disinterested and drop out when they are not properly treated. Such behavioural problems, thereabouts, have become the main reasons for Indonesian schools to implement acceleration class program (Kamdi, 2004; Sawali, 2002).
On the contrary, a research done by Field et al. (1998) show an evidence that gifted children do not always have social behavioural problems in the class. The research found that
‘Gifted children perceived themselves as being more intimate with friends, assuming fewer family responsibilities, and taking more risks (both sports- and danger-related risks). Contrary to the literature suggesting delays in the social development of gifted students, these data indicates that gifted students may socially precocious when compared with non gifted peers’.

Leman (2006), then, argues that ‘there is not a lot of wisdom in pushing kids ahead, even kids who are gifted’. Leman believes that rather than pushing children through acceleration program, it is wiser for parents to be involved more deeply in teaching the children.
However, it is very important for Indonesian educators to understand the concept of giftedness before implementing the acceleration class program since the meaning of giftedness changes over time. For a long time giftedness has relied on nature assumption that gifted is born, not made (Dai & Coleman, 2005). At another moment gifted children are considered as fast learners who usually get high IQ scores (Columbia, 1995). Those meanings may still be appropriate to be the underlying principle of the Indonesian acceleration class, which is typically based upon IQ tests.
However nowadays, giftedness is not only about nature but also nurture (Dai & Coleman, 2005). It has more complex meanings and involves numerous number of attributes that IQ test alone could not comprehensively identify it (Columbia, 1995; Lambert, 2005). Rather than only using IQ and other standardised tests, teachers may have to see other evidences such as portfolios, group projects, performance-based assessments, or a summation of work displayed over time (Lambert, 2005). Moreover, Gardner (as cited in Columbia, 1995 p. 6), in the theory of multiple intelligence, identifies seven areas of capabilities ‘i.e. linguistics; logical-mathematical; spatial; bodily, kinaesthetic; musical; interpersonal intelligence; and intrapersonal intelligence’. This theory makes it clearly possible for a student to be gifted in only one or more particular areas.
When in principle, gifted children should be provided an appropriate learning situation to meet their unique needs, Indonesian teachers’ decision to engage them into acceleration class is actually in agreement with this principle. However, virtuous teachers do not only group gifted children based on a single test (e.g. IQ test). They must also research comprehensively their “individual giftedness” through longer and careful processes, and use more than one tool.
IQ test result alone may group them into another heterogonous class with more complex problems; e.g. children that are gifted in mathematics but bad in language are mixed with bad mathematics but good language children. Consequently, they may suffer from more stressful situation than if they are grouped with not gifted peers. It is better if teachers always communicate with the children and their families about any problems that may happen during their study. This continuous mutual interaction will bring a good agreement between them to solve the problems.

Curriculum Paradigm
Under the curriculum paradigm, some opinions about alternatives of curriculum used in teaching the gifted students in acceleration program are discussed. Evidence consideration and moral reasoning involving principles, agreements, virtuous and consequences, considerations are also used.
Toth (1999) recommends curriculum compacting to help gifted children meet their academic needs. In reporting Renzulli’s (1994) study, Toth states that ‘curriculum compacting is the modification or streamlining of the curriculum for those students who have demonstrated mastery of the curriculum content or who clearly have the potential to cover material in a fraction of the times their peers require’. Curriculum compacting is easy to implement in any grade level (Toth, 1999 p. 12). Toth’s recommendation implies that schools do not need to make new curriculum to fulfil the need of gifted children.
Similar to the above line of reasoning, Indonesian schools use similar curriculum to both accelerated and regular class. In order to accommodate the gifted children’s needs in acceleration, the Department of National Education allows schools to make modification to the national curriculum. The modification could be in these forms:
a) Time allocation is modified based on how fast the gifted students learn.
b) Teachers chose and skip materials within national and local curriculum.
c) Providing teaching and learning tools that support the fast pace of gifted children in learning.
d) Providing different learning situation.
e) Modifying classroom management that enables gifted students to learn in many ways: in pairs, individually, or in groups (Depdiknas, 2006).
Milner and Ford (2005), in contrast, argues that because the classes are different, the curriculum must be different. Gifted children need different curriculum not only because they are fast learner, but they are also learning differently (Tolan, 1990). Gifted children are those who are advanced in one or some areas. Some of them are very bright students but, at the same time, have learning problems, such as attention deficit disorders, learning disabilities, Asperger’s syndrome, deafness and so on (Tomlinson, 2005). Therefore, ‘because gifted learners vary considerably as a population, there is no single formula or template for curriculum and instruction that will serve all of them well’ (Tomlinson, 2005 p. 160). VanTassel-Baska and Stambaugh (2005 p. 212) emphasize that ‘In the current state of education, gifted students and other special populations may be sorely neglected … Differentiation of curriculum for gifted learning is a critical aspect of such planning’.
Betts (2004) suggests three levels of curriculum and instruction. Level one is called prescribed curriculum and instruction, which provides basic knowledge and skills for all children. The level of challenge and complexity in this level of curriculum are not appropriate for gifted children. Level two is teacher-differentiated curriculum, which includes advanced instruction and concept of differentiation and designed to meet the need of gifted children. In this level, the curriculum is developed by the teachers. Level three is learner-differentiated curriculum, where ‘the content area is selected by learners’ and it facilitates individual and self-directed learning processes. The attention is not only focused on cognitive, but also emotional and social development. Within these levels, there are two types of movement. The first is teachers’ movement from ‘dispenser of knowledge to facilitator of the learning process’. The second is students movement on the scale of learning from ‘the role of student to the role of learner’ (Betts, 2004).
The arguments of using either similar – with modification, or different curriculum seems all sensible and applicable. Since both options need teachers’ extra skills to modify or to create different curriculum, deeper attention to the teachers’ competence on curriculum development is needed. Failures in implementing acceleration program may come from the lack of teachers’ competences in the area of curriculum and instruction. As an evidence, Van Tassel-Baska’s and Stambaugh’s study (2005) notes some curriculum matters that teachers have is becoming the barriers in implementing the differentiation programs, including acceleration. They state teachers might be deficient in subject matter knowledge, classroom management skills, time management, administrative support, relevant pedagogical skills, and even knowledge of modifying curriculum.
Therefore, examined from moral reasoning, agreement between all stockholders of acceleration class program is the most critical in either modifying or developing the curriculum within acceleration program. The agreement should involve teachers, head teachers, expert of education and psychology, and most importantly, the students through, for example, continuous learning needs analyses. Without this agreement teachers might be trapped to use their instinct, which consequently, might bring bad impact to the students. Considering some problems previously stated by Van Tassel-Baska and Stambaugh, training should also be given to teachers. Without sufficient training, teachers may face difficulty in modifying or developing the curriculum that, again, will bring bad consequences to the students.
When in principle it is correct to provide different curriculum for the gifted students because they are different from not gifted ones, then in principle, both modifying and developing new curriculum are correct. Therefore, teachers or schools that provide different curriculum through either modifying or developing new one are virtuous. Virtuous teachers understand their students’ needs and always find a way to fulfil their needs.

Economic Paradigm
The simple key question to begin the discussion in economic paradigm is whether or not acceleration class program provides more economical education. In this paradigm, different assumptions are contested; evidences of both opinions are also presented. The essay also uses moral reasoning within this economic paradigm.
Kamdi (2004) states that acceleration class program in Indonesian schools is so expensive that the class is popularly known as an executive class. Some evidences show that acceleration classes cost more expensively than regular ones. In SMA N 78 Jakarta (Senior secondary school 78 Jakarta), according to Mustar (2006), each student should pay 24 million Rupiah every year compared to regular students who pay only 250 thousands Rupiah monthly. However, each student sitting in acceleration class is provided with one computer with access to the internet. They are taught by teachers who have international certificate of teaching. This differentiation makes acceleration class highly more expensive than that of regular class.
In Purwokerto, Central Java, as reported by Eviyanti (2006) from Pikiran Rakyat newspaper, junior secondary school students who sit in acceleration classes should pay their enrolment fee 10 to 12 million Rupiah, while those who go to regular class only pay 2 to 4 million Rupiah. The schools take more money from accelerated students because the program is purely funded by the parents. The government does not provide any subsidy to the class (Mustar, 2006).
In this situation, the parents are virtuous by spending larger number of money for their children. The schools are also virtuous for better facilities, curriculum and quality of teaching and learning they provide. However, schools may be trapped into commercial purposes. Therefore, it would be better if there is a harmony agreement between schools, parents, and the government. The government gives subsidies for the acceleration classes so that parents do not need spend too much money and the schools are still able to provide better quality of education.
Without the government support, the policy of acceleration class program may be biased. It gives benefit only for wealthy students but brings bad consequence to gifted children coming from poor families, due to lack of financial support, although they deserve to accept it. When based on section 31 of 1945 Indonesian Constitution every Indonesian citizen has right to get education, then, the governments decision not to subsidise acceleration class is wrong and, therefore, against this constitution principle.
Benbow, in his study in 1992 (cited in Toth, 1999, p. 7), on the contrary, states that ‘acceleration is an option with little or no financial impact; it is relatively easy to implement and greatly benefits some highly advanced students… because classrooms, materials, and teachers are already in the place’. From this statement, acceleration program, with or without ability grouping, in other part of the world is not expensive. It also implies in order to be more economical, teaching and learning sources like classrooms, materials, and teachers should be ready to support acceleration program so that schools do not need to provide different type of sources.
Another reason is because students need shorter time to graduate from school through grade skipping (Toth, 1999). While other students spend three years to graduate, accelerated students may only need two years. The money they spend also depends on the time they use to study. The shorter students go to school, the more economical they will be.
As an evidence, Georgia is a state that instructs schools to implement acceleration program because it is the most economical option to meet gifted children needs (Dugan, 2007). The position paper about acceleration of National Association of Gifted Children, an association in United State of America, also affirms that acceleration could be a successful strategy for students coming from low income families (NAGC, 2005).
Benbow’s study and the above evidences actually gives an important implication to the Indonesian acceleration program that if all schools in Indonesia could prepare acceleration class with this rationale, both rich and poor gifted students would get good consequence from this program. However, Indonesian schools’ decision to provide different classrooms, materials, and teachers indicate that those components are not ready yet to support gifted education. Therefore, further agreement between schools and government to build strong foundation – like good classrooms, materials, and teachers, is essential so that the program could bring benefits to both rich and poor gifted students.

Conclusion and Recommendation
Based on the examination of the three paradigms, the proposition stating that Indonesian schools need to separate gifted and not gifted, basically, is accepted. However, whether or not they are separated physically into regular and “acceleration class” is becoming a different matter. The following dots provide further explanation:
1) The psychology paradigm implies that, other than implementing “acceleration class program”, the schools need to see other alternatives of acceleration, such as content or subject acceleration, advanced courses, after school or school’s break school and others. Implementing acceleration class program alone, which could completely separate same age groups into different classes, might give worse psychological impact to the students.
2) Curriculum paradigm implies that Indonesian schools may choose to modify existing national or local curriculum, or develop new curriculum that best fit the needs of gifted children. However, teachers’ or educators’ readiness to make modification or new curriculum should have special attention. Evidences, as reported by Van Tassel-Baska’s and Stambaugh’s study (2005), show that failures in implementing gifted education program may come from the lack of teachers competence in curriculum area.
3) Viewed from economic paradigm, Indonesian schools need to evaluate the acceleration class program because it costs extremely expensive. There are actually a lot of ways the schools can take to make it more economical, such as government supports, source preparation, and again, implementing other types of acceleration. Schools should also be careful not to be trapped into commercial motivation pitfall.
Finally, this essay does not suggest Indonesian schools to eliminate the acceleration class program. It recommends that the schools need to evaluate the acceleration class program so that it could run properly based on the real needs of gifted children, becomes more economical and give less psychological impact to the gifted children. The schools may also need to see other types of acceleration. This essay also suggests the teachers to always improve their ability in curriculum development and modification, and instruction.

References

Akbar, R., & Hawadi. (2002). Konsepsi program percepatan belajar bagi anak berbakat intelektual (Conceptions of acceleration program for intelectually talented children). Paper presented at the Conference on Acceleration Program for Secondary Schools in Krida Wacana Christian University Jakarta.
Belcastro, F. P. (1998). A survey of types of gifted programs offered in Iowa public schools districts. Iowa: University of Dubuque.
Betts, G. (2004). Fostering autonomous learners through levels of differentiation. Roeper Review, 26(4), 190-191.
Columbia, B. (1995). Gifted education:A Resource guide for teachers. Retrieved. from http://www.educ.gov.bc.ca/specialed/gifted/ack.html.
Dai, D. Y., & Coleman, L. J. (2005). Epilogue: Conclusions and implications for gifted education. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 28(3/4), 374-390.
Depdiknas. (2003). Undang-undang sistem pendidikan nasional (National Education System Act 2003). Jakarta: Depdiknas.
Depdiknas. (2006). Informasi mengenai program percepatan belajar bagi siswa berbakat akademik (Information about acceleration program for academically talented students). Jakarta: Special Education Directorate, Department of National Education.
Dugan, A. (2007). Grade skipping has drawbacks. Technique: The South’s Liveliest College Newspaper.
Eviyanti. (2006). Biaya masuk sekolah bikin puyeng (Enrollment fee: Creating headache). Pikiran Rakyat.
Field, T., Harding, J., Yando, R., Gonzalez, K., Lasko, D., Bendell, D., et al. (1998). Feelings and attitudes of gifted students. Adolescence, 33(130), 331-342.
Kamdi, W. (2004). Kelas akselerasi dan diskriminasi anak (Acceleration class and children discrimination). Kompas Cyber Media.
Lambert, E. (2005). Program options in gifted and talented education. from http://tiger.towson.edu/~elambe1/research/
Leman, K. (2006). Little wisdom in pushing gifted child ahead. from http://www.tucsoncitizen.com/ss/family/34661%20
Milner, H. R., & Ford, D. Y. (2005). Racial experiences influence us as teachers: Implications for gifted education curriculum development and implementation. Roeper Review, 28(1), 30-36.
Moore, M. (2005). Meeting the educational needs of young gifted readers in the regular classroom. Gifted Child Today, 28(4), 40-65.
Mustar, M. M. (2006). Masuk SMA N 78 Rp. 24 Juta (Pay 24 million rupiah to Enroll to Senior Secondary School of 78 Jakarta). Retrieved. from http://depdiktidki.go.id.
NAGC. (2005). Position Paper: Acceleration. Retrieved. from http://www.nagc.org/index.aspx?id=383.
Sawali. (2002). Kelas unggulan dan akselerasi: Sebuah tragedi (Acceleration and excellent class: A Tragedy). Suara Merdeka.
Tolan, S. (1990). Helping your highly gifted child: Office of Educational Research and Improvement, U.S. Department of
Education.
Tomlinson, C. A. (2005). Quality curriculum and instruction for highly able students. Theory into Practice, 44(2), 160-166.
Toth, N. W. (1999). Gifted education: A critical discussion. Mexico: Eastern New Mexico University.
VanTassel-Baska, J., & Stambaugh, T. (2005). Challenges and possibilities for serving gifted learners in the regular classroom. Theory into Practice, 44(3), 211-217.

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Inilah Jihad: Anda Berani?

Kisah Seorang Pemeriksa Pajak Melawan Korupsi

Sebagai pegawai Departemen Keuangan, saya tidak gelisah dan tidak kalangkabut akibat prinsip hidup korupsi.. Ketika misalnya, tim Inspektorat Jenderal datang, BPKP datang, BPK datang, teman-teman di kantor gelisah dan belingsatan, kami tenang saja. Jadi sebenarnya hidup tanpa korupsi itu lebih menyenangkan. Meski orang melihat kita sepertinya sengsara, tapi sebetulnya lebih menyenangkan. Keadaan itu paling tidak yang saya rasakan langsung.

Saya Arif Sarjono, lahir di Jawa Timur tahun 1970, sampai dengan SMA di Mojokerto, kemudian kuliah di Sekolah Tinggi Akuntansi Negara (STAN) dan selesai pada 1992. Pada 17 Oktober 1992 saya menikah dan kemudian saya ditugaskan di Medan . Saya ketika itu mungkin termasuk generasi pertama yang mencoba menghilangkan dan melawan arus korupsi yang sudah sangat lazim. Waktu itu pertentangan memang sangat keras. Saya punya prinsip satu saja, karena takut pada Allah, jangan sampai ada rezeki haram menjadi daging dalam diri dan keturunan. Itu saja yang selalu ada dalam hati saya.

Kalau ingat prinsip itu, saya selalu menegaskan lagi untuk mengambil jarak yang jelas dan tidak menikmati sedikit pun harta yang haram. Syukurlah, prinsip itu bisa didukung keluarga, karena isteri juga aktif dalam pengajian keislaman. Sejak awal ketika menikah, saya sampaikan kepada isteri bahwa saya pegawai negeri di Departemen Keuangan, meski imej banyak orang, pegawai Departemen Keuangan kaya, tapi sebenarnya tidak begitu. Gaji saya hanya sekian, kalau mau diajak hidup sederhana dan tanpa korupsi, ayo. Kalau tidak mau, ya sudah tidak jadi.

Dari awal saya sudah berusaha menanamkan komitmen kami seperti itu. Saya juga sering ingatkan kepada isteri, bahwa kalau kita konsisten dengan jalan yang kita pilih ini, pada saat kita membutuhkan maka Allah akan selesaikan kebutuhan itu. Jadi yg penting usaha dan konsistensi kita. Saya juga suka mengulang beberapa kejadian yg kami alami selama menjalankan prinsip hidup seperti ini kepada istri. Bahwa yg penting bagi kita adalah cukup dan berkahnya, bahwa kita bisa menjalani hidup layak. Bukan berlebih seperti memiliki rumah dan mobil mewah.

Menjalani prinsip seperti ini jelas banyak ujiannya. Di mata keluarga besar misalnya, orangtua saya juga sebenarnya mengikuti logika umum bahwa orang pajak pasti kaya. Sehingga mereka biasa meminta kami membantu adik-adik dan keluarga. Tapi kami berusaha menjelaskan bahwa kondisi kami berbeda dengan imej dan anggapan orang. Proses memberi pemahaman seperti ini pada keluarga sulit dan membutuhkan waktu bertahun-tahun. Sampai akhirnya pernah mereka berkunjung ke rumah saya di Medan , saat itulah mereka baru mengetahui dan melihat bagaimana kondisi keluarga saya, barulah perlahan-lahan mereka bisa memahami.
Jabatan saya sampai sekarang adalah petugas verifikasi lapangan atau pemeriksa pajak. Kalau dibandingkan teman-teman seangkatan sebenarnya karir saya bisa dikatakan terhambat antara empat sampai lima tahun. Seharusnya paling tidak sudah menjabat Kepala Seksi, Eselon IV. Tapi sekarang baru Eselon V. Apalagi dahulu di masa Orde Baru, penentangan untuk tidak menerima uang korupsi sama saja dengan karir terhambat. Karena saya dianggap tidak cocok dengan atasan, maka kondite saya di mata mereka buruk.Terutama poin ketaatannya, dianggap tidak baik dan jatuh.

Banyak pelajaran yang bisa saya petik dari semua pengalaman itu. Antara lain, orang-orang yang berbuat jahat akan selalu berusaha mencari kawan apa pun caranya. Cara keras, pelan, lewat bujukan atau apa pun akan mereka lakukan agar mereka mendapat dukungan. Mereka pada dasarnya tidak ingin ada orang yang bersih. Mereka tidak ingin ada orang yang tidak seperti mereka.

Pengalaman di kantor yang paling berkesan ketika mereka menggunakan cara paling halus, pura-pura berteman dan bersahabat. Tapi belakangan, setelah sekian tahun barulah ketahuan, kita sudah dikhianati. Cara seperti in seperti sudah direkayasa. Misalnya, pegawai-pegawai baru didekati. Mereka dikenalkan dengan gaya hidup dan cara bekerja pegawai lama, bahwa seperti inilah gaya hidup pegawai Departemen Keuangan. Bila tidak berhasil, mereka akan pakai cara lain lagi, begitu seterusnya. Pola-pola apa saja dipakai, sampai mereka bisa merangkul orang itu menjadi teman.

Saya pernah punya atasan. Dari awal ketika memperkenalkan diri, dia sangat simpatik di mata saya. Dia juga satu-satunya atasan yang mau bermain ke rumah bawahan. Saya dengan atasan itu kemudian menjadi seperti sahabat, bahkan seperti keluarga sendiri. Di akhir pekan, kami biasa memancing sama-sama atau jalan-jalan bersama keluarga. Dan ketika pulang, dia biasa juga menitipkan uang dalam amplop pada anak-anak saya. Saya sendiri menganggap pemberian itu hanya hadiah saja, berapalah hadiah yang diberikan kepada anak-anak. Tidak terlalu saya perhatikan. Apalagi dalam proses pertemanan itu kami sedikit saja berbicara tentang pekerjaan. Dan dia juga sering datang menjemput ke rumah, mangajak mancing atau ke toko buku sambil membawa anak-anak.

Hingga satu saat saya mendapat surat perintah pemeriksaan sebuah perusahaan besar. Dari hasil pemeriksaan itu saya menemukan penyimpangan sangat besar dan luar biasa jumlahnya. Pada waktu itu, atasan melakukan pendekatan pada saya dengan cara paling halus. Dia mengatakan, kalau semua penyimpangan ini kita ungkapkan, maka perusahaan itu bangkrut dan banyak pegawai yang di-PHK. Karena itu, dia menganggap efek pembuktian penyimpangan itu justru menyebabkan masyarakat rugi. Sementara dari sisi pandang saya, betapa tidak adilnyakalau tidak mengungkap temuan itu. Karena sebelumnya ada yang melakukan penyimpangan dan kami ungkapkan. Berarti ada pembedaan. Jadwal penagihannya pun sama seperti perusahaan lain.
Karena dirasa sulit mempengaruhi sikap saya, kemudian dia memakai logika lain lagi. Apakah tidak sebaiknya kalau temuan itu diturunkan dan dirundingkan dengan klien, agar bisa membayar pajak dan negara untung, karena ada uang yang masuk negara. Logika seperti ini juga tidak bisa saya terima. Waktu itu, saya satu-satunyaanggota tim yang menolak dan memintaagar temuan itu tetap diungkap apa adanya. Meski saya juga sadar, kalau saya tidak menandatangani hasil laporan itu pun, laporan itu akan tetap sah. Tapi saya merasa teman-teman itu sangat tidak ingin semua sepakat dan sama seperti mereka. Mereka ingin semua sepakat dan sama seperti mereka. Paling tidak menerima. Ketika sudah mentok semuanya, saya dipanggil oleh atasan dan disidang di depan kepala kantor. Dan ini yang amat berkesan sampai sekarang, bahwa upaya mereka untuk menjadikan orang lain tidak bersih memang direncanakan.

Di forum itu, secara terang-terangan atasan yang sudah lama bersahabat dan seperti keluarga sendiri dengan saya itu mengatakan, “Sudahlah, Dik Arif tidak usah munafik.” Saya katakan, “Tidak munafik bagaimana Pak? Selama ini saya insya Allah konsisten untuk tidak melakukan korupsi” Kemudian ia sampaikan terus terang bahwa uang yang selama kurang lebih dua tahun ia berikan pada anak sayaadalah uang dari klien. Ketika mendengar itu, saya sangat terpukul, apalagi merasakan sahabat itu ternyata berkhianat.Karena terus terang saya belum pernah mempunyai teman sangat dekat seperti itu, kacuali yang memang sudah sama-sama punya prinsip untuk menolak uang suap.Bukan karena saya tidak mau bergaul, tapi karena kami tahu persis bahwa mereka perlahan-lahan menggiring ke arah yang mereka mau.

Ketika merasa terpukul dan tidak bisa membalas dengan kata-kata apa pun, saya pulang. Saya menangis dan menceritakan masalah itu pada isteri saya di rumah. Ketika mendengar cerita saya itu, isteri langsung sujud syukur.
Ia lalu mengatakan, “Alhamdulillah. Selama ini uang itu tidak pernah saya pakai,” katanya. Ternyata di luar pengatahuan saya, alhamdulillah, amplop-amplo itu tidak digunakan sedikit pun oleh isteri saya untuk keperluan apa pun. Jadi amplop-amplop itu disimpan di sebuah tempat, meski ia sama sekali tidak tahu apa status uang itu. Amplop-amplop itu semuanya masih utuh. Termasuk tulisannya masih utuh, tidak ada yang dibuka. Jumlahnya berapa saya juga tidak tahu. Yang jelas, bukan lagi puluhan juta. Karena sudah masuk hitungan dua tahun dan diberikan hampir setiap pekan.

Saya menjadi bersemangat kembali. Saya ambil semua amplop itu dan saya bawa ke kantor. Saya minta bertemu dengan kepala kantor dan kepala seksi. Dalam forum itu, saya lempar semua amplop itu di hadapan atasan saya hingga bertaburan di lantai. Saya katakan, “Makan uang itu, satu rupiah pun saya tidak pernah gunakan uang itu. Mulai saat ini, saya tidak pernah percaya satu pun perkataan kalian.” Mereka tidak bisa bicara apa pun karena fakta obyektif, saya tidak pernah memakai uang yang mereka tuduhkan. Tapi esok harinya, saya langsung dimutasi antar seksi. Awalnya saya diauditor, lantas saya diletakkan di arsip, meski tetap menjadi petugas lapangan pemeriksa pajak. Itu berjalan sampai sekarang. Ketika melawan arus yang kuat, tentu saja da saat tarik-menarik dalam hati dan konflik batin. Apalagi keluarga saya hidup dalam kondisi terbatas. Tapi alhamdulillah, sampai sekarang saya tidak tergoda untuk menggunakan uang yang tidak jelas. Ada pengalaman lain yang masih saya ingat sampai sekarang. Ketika saya mengalami kondisi yang begitu mendesak. Misalnya, ketika anak kedua lahir. Saat itu persis ketika saya membayar kontrak rumah dan tabungan saya habis. Sampai detik-detik terakhir harus membayar uang rumah sakit untuk membawa isteri dan bayi kami ke rumah, saya tidak punya uang serupiah pun.

Saya mau bicara dengan pihak rumah sakit dan terus terang bahwa insya Allah pekan depan akan saya bayar, tapi saya tidak bisa ngomong juga. Akhirnya saya keluar sebentar ke masjid untuk sholat dhuha. Begitu pulang dari sholat dhuha, tiba-tiba saja saya ketemu teman lama di rumah sakit itu. Sebelumnya kami lama sekali tidak pernah jumpa. Dia dapat cerita dari teman bahwa isteri saya melahirkan, maka dia sempatkan datang ke rumah sakit. Wallahu a’lam apakah dia sudah diceritakan kondisi saya atau bagaimana, tetapi ketika ingin menyampaikan kondisi saya pada pihak rumah sakit, saya malah ditunjukkan kwitansi seluruh biaya perawatan isteri yang sudah lunas. Alhamdulillah..

Adalagi peristiwa hampir sama, ketika anak saya operasi mata karena ada lipoma yang harus diangkat. Awalnya, saya pakai jasa askes. Tapi karena pelayanan pengguna Askes tampaknya apa adanya, dan saya kasihan karena anak saya baru berumur empat tahun, saya tidak pakai Askes lagi.. Saya ke Rumah Sakit yang agak bagus sehingga pelayanannya juga agak bagus. Itu saya lakukan sambil tetap berfikir, nanti uangnya pinjam dari mana?

Ketika anak harus pulang, saya belum juga punya uang. Dan saya paling susah sekali menyampaikan ingin pinjam uang. Alhamdulillah, ternyata Allah cukupkan kebutuhan itu pada detik terakhir. Ketika sedang membereskan pakaian di rumah sakit, tiba-tiba Allah pertemukan saya dengan seseorang yang sudah lama tidak bertemu. Ia bertanya bagaimana kabar, dan saya ceritakan anak saya sedang dioperasi. Dia katakan, “Kenapa tidak bilang-bilang” Saya sampaikan karena tidak sempat saja. Setelah teman itu pulang, ketika ingin menyampaikan penundaan pembayaran, ternyata kwitansinya juga sudah dilunasi oleh teman itu.
Alhamdulillah.

Saya berusaha tidak terjatuh ke dalam korupsi, meski masih ada tekanan keluarga besar, di luar keluarga inti saya. Karena ada teman yang tadinya baik tidak memakan korupsi, tapi jatuh karena tekanan keluarga. Keluarganya minta bantuan, karena takut dibilang pelit, mereka terpaksa pinjam sana sini. Ketika harus bayar, akhirnya mereka terjerat korupsi juga. Karena banyak yang seperti itu, dan saya tidak mau terjebak begitu, saya berusaha dari awal tidak demikian. Saya berusaha cari usaha lain, dengan mengajar dan sebagainya. Isteri saya juga bekerja sebagai guru.

Di lingkungan kerja, pendekatan yang saya lakukan biasanya lebih banyak dengan bercanda. Sedangkan pendekatan serius, sebenarnya mereka sudah puas dengan pendekatan itu, tapi tidak berubah. Dengan pendekatan bercanda, misalnya ketika datang tim pemeriksa dari BPK, BPKP, atau Irjen. Mereka gelisah sana-sini kumpulkan uang untuk menyuap pemeriksa. Jadi mereka dapat suap lalu menyuap lagi. Seperti rantai makanan. Siapa memakan siapa.

Uang yang mereka kumpulkan juga habis untuk dipakai menyuap lagi. Mereka selalu takut ini takut itu. Paling sering saya hanya mengatakan dengan bercanda, “Uang setan ya dimakan hantu.” Dari percakapan seperti itu ada juga yang mulai berubah, kemudian berdialog dan akhirnya berhenti sama sekali. Harta mereka jual dan diberikan kepada masyarakat. Tapi yang seperti itu tidak banyak. Sedikit sekali orang yang bisa merubah gaya hidup yang semula mewah lalu tiba-tiba miskin. Itu sulit sekali.
Adajuga diantara teman-teman yang beranggapan, dirinya tidak pernah memeras dan tidak memakan uang korupsi secara langsung. Tapi hanya menerima uang dari atasan. Mereka beralasan toh tidak meminta dan atasan itu hanya memberi. Mereka mengatakan tidak perlu bertanya uang itu dari mana. Padahal sebenarnya, dari ukuran gaji kami tahu persis bahwa atasan kami tidak akan pernah bisa memberikan uang sebesar itu.

Atasan yang memberikan itu berlapis-lapis. Kalau atasan langsung biasanya memberi uang hari Jum’at atau akhir pekan. Istilahnya kurang lebih uang Jum’atan. Atasan yang berikutnya lagi pada momen berikutnya memberi juga. Kalau atasan yang lebih tinggi lagi biasanya memberi menjelang lebaran dan sebagainya. Kalau dihitung-hitung sebenarnya lebih besar uang dari atasan dibanding gaji bulanan. Orang-orang yang menerima uang seperti ini yang sulit berubah. Mereka termasuk rajin sholat, puasa sunnah dan membaca Al-Qur’an. Tetapi mereka sulit berubah. Ternyata hidup dengan korupsi memang membuat sengsara. Di antara teman-teman yang korupsi, ada juga yang akhirnya dipecat, ada yang melarikan diri karena dikejar-kejar polisi, ada yang isterinya selingkuh dan lain-lain. Meski secara ekonomi mereka sangat mapan, bukan hanya sekadar mapan.

Yang sangat dramatis, saya ingat teman sebangku saya saat kuliah di STAN. Awalnya dia sama-sama ikut kajian keislaman di kampus. Tapi ketika keluarganya mulai sering minta bantuan, adiknya kuliah, pengobatan keluarga dan lainnya, dia tidak bisa berterus terang tidak punya uang. Akhirnya ia mencoba hutang sana-sini. Dia pun terjebak dan merasa sudah terlanjur jatuh, akhirnya dia betul-betul sama dengan teman-teman di kantor. Bahkan sampai sholat ditinggalkan. Terakhir, dia ditangkap polisi ketika sedang mengkonsumsi narkoba. Isterinya pun selingkuh. Teman itu sekarang dipecat dan dipenjara.

Saya berharap akan makin banyak orang yang melakukan jihad untuk hidup yang bersih. Kita harus bisa menjadi pelopor dan teladan di mana saja. Kiatnya hanya satu, terus menerus menumbuhkan rasa takut menggunakan dan memakan uang haram. Jangan sampai daging kita ini tumbuh dari hasil rejeki yang haram. Saya berharap, mudah-mudahan Allah tetap memberikan pada kami keistiqomahan.

Sumber: (Majalah Tarbawi Edisi 111 Th. 7/Jumadal Ula 1426 H/23 Juni 2005)

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Ketika Musim Berubah

Musim selalu berubah. Sekonstan apapun perubahan musim, ia tetap berubah. Perubahan itu indah, walau kadang harus dibayar dengan keringat, air mata dan… darah.

Wishes

This is dedicated to the victims of any violence. I cry for you..

And life is going on
As usual
catching the future
and leaving the past
And many people are skying the wishes up
Always

If there were no country
there would be no guns
If there were no guns
there would be no war
If there were no war
there would be no sorrow

But life is still going on
As usual
building the present
and destroying the future
And many people are still hoping
the unhoped
Life will always be going on
As usual

Dedy Gunawan
Copyright ©2007 Dedy Gunawan
http://www.poetry.com

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